Structure of the Ear

Middle ear          marketing agency,

Dr Bahman Rasuli◉ and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard◉◈ et al.
The middle ear or center ear hollow space, also referred to as tympanic hollow space or tympanum (plural: tympanums/tympana), is an air-filled chamber in the petrous part of the temporal bone. It is separated from the outside ear via the tympanic membrane, and from the internal ear by using the medial wall of the tympanic hollow space. It includes the three auditory ossicles whose purpose is to transmit and enlarge sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the lateral wall of the internal ear.

Gross anatomy
The tympanic cavity is subdivided into numerous elements defined with regards to the planes of the tympanic membrane. Some authors define 3 cubicles 4:

mesotympanum, at once medial to the membrane
epitympanum (attic, epitympanic recess), superior to the membrane
hypotympanum, inferior to the membrane
In addition to those cubicles, a few authors define two more cubicles 5:

protympanum, anterior to the membrane
retrotympanum, posterior to the membrane
The center ear is formed like a slim field with concave facets. It has six “walls”:

the tegmental wall (roof): Formed through the tegmen tympani, a skinny plate of petrous bone that still covers the canal for the tensor tympani muscle and the tympanic antrum. It separates the dura mater on the ground of the middle cranial fossa from the tympanic cavity.
The jugular wall (floor): Formed with the aid of the jugular plate that separates the tympanic cavity from the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein.
The membranous (lateral) wall: This is formed absolutely by using the peaked convexity of the tympanic membrane and superiorly by the lateral bony wall of the epitympanic recess.
The labyrinthine (medial) wall: This separates the tympanic hollow space from the inner ear. The preliminary part (basal flip) of the cochlea forms the promontory of the labyrinthine wall. It also capabilities oval and round windows, which talk with the internal ear.
The mastoid (posterior) wall: This capabilities the aditus (starting) to the mastoid antrum in its advanced part, which connects the tympanic cavity to the mastoid cells. The canal for the facial nerve descends between the posterior wall and the antrum, medial to the aditus. Above this canal is the convex bulge of the lateral semicircular canal. Below the aditus there is a hole conical projection, known as the pyramid, that’s perforated via the tendon of the stapedius muscle.
The carotid (anterior) wall: This separates the tympanic membrane from the carotid canal. Inferiorly, there may be the outlet of the Eustachian tube (additionally known as the pharyngotympanic or auditory tube) and the semicanal for the tensor tympani muscle.
Contents
Bones
Middle ear ossicles encompass three small bones (the malleus, incus and stapes), which form a mobile chain throughout the tympanic cavity from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

Muscles
There are two muscle tissues, one attached to the malleus and one attached to the stapes, which act to damp down over-vibration from low-pitched sound waves.

Tensor tympani muscle (inserts into the deal with of the malleus)
stapedius muscle (inserts into the neck of the stapes)
Nerves
The chorda tympani, a branch of nervus intermedius, leaves the facial nerve within the facial canal and enters the tympanic cavity via the posterior wall, lateral to the pyramid, lying simply below the mucous membrane. It runs over the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane, and the neck of the malleus. It leaves at the anterior margin of the tympanic notch.

Specific reconstructions as Stenvers view or double-indirect sagittal view can be beneficial to assess the involvement of the facial canal in tumours affecting the tympanic hollow space, as well as in pre-surgical evaluation 6.

Arterial supply
anterior tympanic artery from the maxillary artery
stylomastoid artery from the posterior auricular or occipital arteries
numerous small vessels from the outside carotid artery
Venous drainage
drainage to the pterygoid venous plexus and the superior petrosal sinus
Lymphatic drainage
Lymphatic drainage is to the parotid, retropharyngeal and higher organization of deep cervical nodes.

Innervation
This is by means of the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacobson nerve), which forms the tympanic plexus via combining with sympathetic fibres from the inner carotid nerve. Branches from the plexus deliver sensory and vasomotor fibres to the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity, in addition to to the tympanic membrane and external auditory meatus.

The center and external ear also are furnished by using branches of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves which ends up in referred pain inside the ear from other areas furnished by those nerves, e.G. The tooth, posterior a part of the tongue, pharynx and larynx.

The tympanic plexus offers off the lesser petrosal nerve, which provides parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland through the otic ganglion.

History and etymology
Tympanum is derived from τύμπανον (tumpanon) the Ancient Greek word for a drum.

Related pathology
middle ear granulation tissue
otomastoiditis
middle ear effusion
haemotympanum
tympanic membrane retraction
eustachian tube dysfunction
center ear tumours
ldl cholesterol granuloma
received cholesteatoma
References
Related Radiopaedia articles
Anatomy: Head and neck
Anatomy: Head and neck

skeleton of the pinnacle and neck
cranial vault
scalp (mnemonic)
galea aponeurotica
fontanelle
anterior fontanelle
posterior fontanelle
anterolateral (sphenoidal) fontanelle
posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle
sutures
calvarial
coronal suture
sagittal suture
lambdoid suture
accessory occipital bone sutures
metopic suture
squamosal suture
sphenosquamosal suture
squamomastoid suture
facial
frontozygomatic suture
frontomaxillary suture
frontolacrimal suture
frontonasal suture
temporozygomatic suture
zygomaticomaxillary suture
parietotemporal suture (parietomastoid suture)
occipitotemporal suture (occipitomastoid suture)
sphenofrontal suture
sphenozygomatic suture
spheno-occipital suture (now not a real suture)
lacrimomaxillary suture
nasomaxillary suture
internasal suture
basal/internal
frontoethmoidal suture
petrosquamous suture
petroclival suture
sphenoethmoidal suture
sphenopetrosal suture
skull landmarks
nasion
glabella
bregma
vertex
lambda
inion
pterion
asterion
basion
opisthion
obelion
frontal bone
supratrochlear foramen
supraorbital foramen
temporal bone
squamous component
MacEwen triangle
mandibular fossa
sigmoid plate
petrous component
petrous apex
Fallopian canal
jugular fossa
inferior tympanic canaliculus
petrous ridge
Dorello canal
petromastoid canal
mastoid element
mastoid antrum
mastoid air cells
Koerner septum
mastoid canaliculus
mastoid foramen
tympanic component
tympanosquamous fissure
styloid process
stylomastoid foramen
styloid apparatus
stylohyoid ligament
parietal bone
parietal foramen
occipital bone
clivus
inferior median clival canal
foveola pharyngica recess
occipital condyle
bathrocephaly
cranium base (foramina)
anterior cranial fossa
anterior ethmoidal foramen
posterior ethmoidal foramen
foramen caecum
cribriform plate
center cranial fossa (mnemonic)
foramen rotundum
foramen ovale (mnemonic)
foramen spinosum
foramen Vesalii
foramen lacerum
carotid canal
pterygoid canal
posterior cranial fossa
condylar canal
jugular foramen
jugular spine
hypoglossal canal
foramen magnum
facial bones
midline single bones
sphenoid bone
body
pituitary fossa
sella turcica
dorsum sellae
pneumatised dorsum sellae
tuberculum sellae
chronic hypophyseal canal
vomerovaginal canal
jugum sphenoideum
lesser wing
extra wing
pterygoid approaches
palatovaginal canal
ethmoid bone
cribriform plate
crista galli
olfactory fossa
Keros class
labyrinth of ethmoid
lamina papyracea
vomer
mandible
temporomandibular joint
articular disc
retrodiscal sector
pterygoid fovea
lingula
sphenomandibular ligament
stylomandibular ligament
mandibular foramen
mandibular canal
intellectual foramen
paired bilateral bones
maxilla
incisive canal
incisive foramen
palatine bone
sphenopalatine foramen
more palatine foramen (canal)
lesser palatine foramina (canal)
nasal bone
lacrimal bone
zygoma (zygomatic bone)
zygomaticofacial foramen
zygomaticotemporal foramen
zygomatic arch
cervical backbone
hyoid bone
laryngeal cartilages
arytenoid cartilage
corniculate cartilage
cuneiform cartilage
cricoid cartilage
thyroid cartilage
muscular tissues of the head and neck
muscle tissues of the tongue (mnemonic)
extrinsic muscular tissues of the tongue
genioglossus muscle
hyoglossus muscle
styloglossus muscle
palatoglossus muscle
intrinsic muscles of the tongue
superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue
inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue
transverse muscle of the tongue
vertical muscle of the tongue
muscle tissue of mastication
temporalis muscle
masseter muscle
medial pterygoid muscle
lateral pterygoid muscle
muscle groups of facial features
occipitalis muscle
circumorbital and palpebral muscle groups
orbicularis oculi muscle
corrugator supercilii muscle
levator palpebrae superioris muscle
nasal muscle groups
procerus muscle
nasalis muscle
compressor naris muscle
dilator naris muscle
myrtiformis muscle
depressor septi nasalis muscle
levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle
​buccolabial muscle groups
elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip
levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle
levator labii superioris muscle
zygomaticus foremost muscle
zygomaticus minor muscle
malaris muscle
levator anguli oris muscle
risorius muscle
depressors, retractors and evertors of the lower lip
depressor labii inferioris muscle
depressor anguli oris muscle
mentalis muscle
compound sphincter
orbicularis oris muscle
incisivus advanced muscle
incisivus inferior muscle
muscle of mastication:
buccinator muscle
muscle groups of the middle ear
stapedius muscle
tensor tympani muscle
orbital muscle mass
extraocular muscular tissues
superior rectus muscle
inferior rectus muscle
lateral rectus muscle
medial rectus muscle
superior oblique muscle
inferior oblique muscle
levator palpebrae superioris muscle
superior tarsal muscle
muscular tissues of the smooth palate
tensor veli palatini muscle
levator veli palatini muscle
palatopharyngeus muscle
palatoglossus muscle
muscle of the uvula
pharyngeal muscular tissues
advanced pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Passavant cushion
center pharyngeal constrictor muscle
inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Killian dehiscence
stylopharyngeus muscle
salpingopharyngeus muscle
suprahyoid muscle tissues
digastric muscle
geniohyoid muscle
mylohyoid muscle
mylohyoid boutonniere
stylohyoid muscle
infrahyoid muscle tissues
sternohyoid muscle
sternothyroid muscle
thyrohyoid muscle
omohyoid muscle
intrinsic muscles of the larynx
muscle groups of the neck
platysma muscle
longus colli muscle
longus capitis muscle
scalenus anterior muscle
colliscalene triangle
scalenus medius muscle
scalenus posterior muscle
scalenus pleuralis muscle
sternocleidomastoid muscle
suboccipital muscle tissue
rectus capitis posterior most important muscle
rectus capitis posterior minor muscle
obliquus capitis advanced muscle
obliquus capitis inferior muscle
accessory muscles of the neck
levator glandulae thyroideae muscle
deep cervical fascia
superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia
center layer of the deep cervical fascia
pharyngobasilar fascia
sinus of Morgagni
deep layer of the deep cervical fascia
deep areas of the neck
anterior cervical area
buccal space
carotid space
carotid sheath
danger area
deep cervical fascia
alar fascia
infratemporal fossa
masticator area
parapharyngeal area
stylomandibular tunnel
parotid space
pharyngeal (superficial) mucosal space
​perivertebral space
posterior cervical space
pterygopalatine fossa
pterygomaxillary fissure
retropharyngeal space
suprasternal area (of Burns)
visceral area
surgical triangles of the neck
anterior triangle
digastric triangle
carotid triangle
muscular triangle
submental triangle
posterior triangle
occipital triangle
suboccipital triangle
supraclavicular triangle
orbit
bony orbit
anterior ethmoidal notch
orbital apex
optic canal
superior orbital fissure (mnemonic)
inferior orbital fissure
infraorbital foramen
tendinous ring
supraorbital ridge
orbital areas
extraconal
myofascial cone
intraconal
ocular globe
conjunctiva
cornea
sclera
uvea
iris
ciliary body
choroid
ora serrata
vitreous frame
Cloquet’s canal
lens
optic nerve-sheath complex
fovea
orbital septum
naso-orbitoethmoid region
eye actions
ocular adductors
ocular abductors
ocular elevators
ocular depressors
ocular inner rotators
ocular external rotators
orbital blood supply
ophthalmic artery
superior ophthalmic vein
inferior ophthalmic vein
orbital nerve deliver
lacrimal equipment
lacrimal gland
nasolacrimal drainage apparatus
lacrimal canaliculi
lacrimal sac
nasolacrimal duct
ear
internal ear
inner acoustic meatus (mnemonic)
Bill bar
falciform crescent
porus acusticus internus
labyrinth
osseous labyrinth
cochlea
modiolus
spiral lamina
helicotrema
cochlear aqueduct
semicircular canals
vestibule
macula cribrosa
vestibular aqueduct
perilymph
​membranous labyrinth
cochlear duct (scala media)
organ of Corti (Spiral organ)
scala vestibuli
scala tympani
perilymphatic duct
semicircular ducts
saccule
utricle
​endolymphatic duct
endolymph
center ear
hypotympanum
Eustachian tube
mesotympanum
cochlear promontory
fissula ante fenestram
facial recess
pyramidal eminence
sinus tympani
oval window
spherical window
ossicular chain
malleus
incus
stapes
incudomalleolar joint
incudostapedial joint
stapediovestibular joint
epitympanum
anterior epitympanic recess
Prussak area
external ear
outside auditory meatus
foramen tympanicum
porus acusticus externus
external auditory canal
scutum
tympanic membrane
pars tensa
pars flaccida
tympanic annulus
paranasal sinuses
frontal sinuses
maxillary sinuses
maxillary ostium
accessory maxillary ostium
ethmoid air cells (sinuses)
ethmoidal infundibulum
ethmoid bulla
bulla lamella
suprabullar recess
retrobullar recess
agger nasi air cells
infraorbital ethmoidal air cells
sphenoethmoidal air cells
supraorbital air cells
sphenoid sinuses
sphenoethmoidal recess
extramural air cellular
ostiomeatal complicated
ostiomeatal narrowing because of variant anatomy
higher respiration tract
nose
outside nostril
nasal cartilages
nasal vestibule
anterior naris
nasal ala
nasal sill
columella
nasal septum
pyriform aperture
nasal hollow space
inferior meatus
Woodruff plexus
nasal concha
inferior
middle
concha bullosa
paradoxical middle turbinate
hiatus semilunaris
uncinate procedure
superior
splendid
Kiesselbach plexus
Schneiderian epithelium
oral hollow space
palate
tough palate
tender palate
uvula
floor of mouth
retromolar trigone
sublingual space
submandibular area
submental space
tongue
root of tongue
​enamel (dental terminology)
supernumerary tooth
mesiodens
hypodontia
pharynx
nasopharynx
Rosenmüller fossa
torus tubarius
oropharynx
vallecula
hypopharynx
pyriform sinus (fossa)
larynx
supraglottic space
aryepiglottic folds
epiglottis
omega epiglottis
false vocal cords
laryngeal ventricle
laryngeal saccule
laryngeal vestibule
glottis
subglottic area
proper vocal cords
anterior commissure of the larynx
viscera of the neck
Waldeyer ring
nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsils
thyroid gland
pyramidal lobe of thyroid
ectopic thyroid
Zuckerkandl tubercle
thyroglossal duct
parathyroid gland
salivary glands and ducts
main salivary glands
parotid gland
parotid duct
accessory parotid gland
submandibular gland
submandibular (Wharton) duct
sublingual gland
duct of Rivinus
minor salivary glands
oesophagus
trachea
blood supply of the top and neck
arterial supply
commonplace carotid artery
carotid body
carotid bifurcation
inner carotid artery (segments)
artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari
caroticotympanic artery
chronic stapedial artery
ophthalmic artery
supraorbital artery
lacrimal artery
significant artery of the retina
supratrochlear artery
dorsal nasal artery
external carotid artery (mnemonic)
superior thyroid artery
superior laryngeal artery
ascending pharyngeal artery
lingual artery
facial artery
inferior labial artery
advanced labial artery
angular artery
occipital artery
posterior auricular artery
(internal) maxillary artery (mnemonic)
deep auricular artery
middle meningeal artery
more (descending) palatine artery
inferior alveolar artery
mental artery
sphenopalatine artery
anterior ethmoidal artery
posterior ethmoidal artery
infraorbital artery
masseteric artery
buccinator artery
deep temporal arteries
Vidian artery
superficial temporal artery
subclavian artery
vertebral artery
inner thoracic artery
thyrocervical trunk
inferior thyroid artery
suprascapular artery
ascending cervical artery
transverse cervical artery
dorsal scapular artery
costocervical trunk
variants
thyroidea ima artery
venous drainage
inner jugular vein (mnemonic)
jugular bulb
asymmetrically massive jugular bulb
pharyngeal vein
common facial vein
angular vein
supraorbital vein
supratrochlear vein
lingual vein
superior thyroid vein
middle thyroid vein
outside jugular vein (mnemonic)
posterior auricular vein
retromandibular vein
superficial temporal vein
(deep/internal) maxillary vein
pterygoid venous plexus
facial vein
anterior jugular vein
posterior external jugular vein
suprascapular vein
transverse cervical vein
cavernous sinus
facial-cavernous anastomoses
anterior condylar confluence
innervation of the top and neck
cranial nerves
olfactory nerve (CN I)
optic nerve (CN II)
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
trochlear nerve (CN IV)
trigeminal nerve (CN V) (mnemonic)
trigeminal ganglion
ophthalmic department
tentorial nerve
frontal nerve
supra-orbital nerve
supratrochlear nerve
lacrimal nerve
nasociliary nerve
small communicating branch to the ciliary ganglion
short ciliary nerves
lengthy ciliary nerves
infratrochlear nerve
posterior ethmoidal nerve
anterior ethmoidal nerve
maxillary department
center meningeal nerve
zygomatic nerve
zygomaticotemporal nerve
zygomaticofacial nerve
infra-orbital nerve
posterior superior alveolar nerve
center superior alveolar nerve
anterior superior alveolar nerve
nasopalatine nerve
posterior superior nasal nerves
more palatine nerve
lateral posterior inferior nasal nerve
lesser palatine nerves
pharyngeal nerve
mandibular division
nervus spinosus
nerve to medial pterygoid
anterior department
deep temporal nerves
lateral pterygoid nerves
masseteric nerve
buccal nerve
posterior department
auriculotemporal nerve
lingual nerve
inferior alveolar nerve
nerve to mylohyoid
incisive nerve
mental nerve
abducens nerve (CN VI)
facial nerve (CN VII)
chorda tympani
nerve to stapedius
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
vestibular ganglion (Scarpa’s ganglion)
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Jacobson nerve
vagus nerve (CN X)
superior laryngeal nerve
outside laryngeal nerve
inner laryngeal nerve
recurrent laryngeal nerve (inferior laryngeal nerve)
non-recurrent laryngeal nerve
(spinal) accent nerve (CN XI)
hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
parasympathetic ganglia of the top and neck
ciliary ganglion
pterygopalatine ganglion
otic ganglion​
submandibular ganglion
more occipital nerve
1/3 occipital nerve
cervical plexus
muscular branches
longus capitis
longus colli
scalenes
scalenus anterior
scalenus medius
scalenus posterior
geniohyoid
thyrohyoid
ansa cervicalis
omohyoid (advanced and inferior bellies one by one)
sternothyroid
sternohyoid
phrenic nerve
accent phrenic nerve
contribution to the accessory nerve (CN XI)
cutaneous branches
much less occipital nerve
more auricular nerve
transverse cervical nerve
supraclavicular nerve
brachial plexus
pharyngeal plexus
lymphatic drainage of the pinnacle and neck
cervical lymph node corporations
Delphian node
intraparotid lymph nodes
jugular trunk
cervical lymph node stages
supraclavicular lymph nodes
embryological development of the head and neck
branchial equipment
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