Structure of the Ear

Middle ear          marketing agency,

Dr Bahman Rasuli◉ and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard◉◈ et al.
The middle ear or center ear hollow space, also referred to as tympanic hollow space or tympanum (plural: tympanums/tympana), is an air-filled chamber in the petrous part of the temporal bone. It is separated from the outside ear via the tympanic membrane, and from the internal ear by using the medial wall of the tympanic hollow space. It includes the three auditory ossicles whose purpose is to transmit and enlarge sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the lateral wall of the internal ear.

Gross anatomy
The tympanic cavity is subdivided into numerous elements defined with regards to the planes of the tympanic membrane. Some authors define 3 cubicles 4:

mesotympanum, at once medial to the membrane
epitympanum (attic, epitympanic recess), superior to the membrane
hypotympanum, inferior to the membrane
In addition to those cubicles, a few authors define two more cubicles 5:

protympanum, anterior to the membrane
retrotympanum, posterior to the membrane
The center ear is formed like a slim field with concave facets. It has six “walls”:

the tegmental wall (roof): Formed through the tegmen tympani, a skinny plate of petrous bone that still covers the canal for the tensor tympani muscle and the tympanic antrum. It separates the dura mater on the ground of the middle cranial fossa from the tympanic cavity.
The jugular wall (floor): Formed with the aid of the jugular plate that separates the tympanic cavity from the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein.
The membranous (lateral) wall: This is formed absolutely by using the peaked convexity of the tympanic membrane and superiorly by the lateral bony wall of the epitympanic recess.
The labyrinthine (medial) wall: This separates the tympanic hollow space from the inner ear. The preliminary part (basal flip) of the cochlea forms the promontory of the labyrinthine wall. It also capabilities oval and round windows, which talk with the internal ear.
The mastoid (posterior) wall: This capabilities the aditus (starting) to the mastoid antrum in its advanced part, which connects the tympanic cavity to the mastoid cells. The canal for the facial nerve descends between the posterior wall and the antrum, medial to the aditus. Above this canal is the convex bulge of the lateral semicircular canal. Below the aditus there is a hole conical projection, known as the pyramid, that’s perforated via the tendon of the stapedius muscle.
The carotid (anterior) wall: This separates the tympanic membrane from the carotid canal. Inferiorly, there may be the outlet of the Eustachian tube (additionally known as the pharyngotympanic or auditory tube) and the semicanal for the tensor tympani muscle.
Middle ear ossicles encompass three small bones (the malleus, incus and stapes), which form a mobile chain throughout the tympanic cavity from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

There are two muscle tissues, one attached to the malleus and one attached to the stapes, which act to damp down over-vibration from low-pitched sound waves.

Tensor tympani muscle (inserts into the deal with of the malleus)
stapedius muscle (inserts into the neck of the stapes)
The chorda tympani, a branch of nervus intermedius, leaves the facial nerve within the facial canal and enters the tympanic cavity via the posterior wall, lateral to the pyramid, lying simply below the mucous membrane. It runs over the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane, and the neck of the malleus. It leaves at the anterior margin of the tympanic notch.

Specific reconstructions as Stenvers view or double-indirect sagittal view can be beneficial to assess the involvement of the facial canal in tumours affecting the tympanic hollow space, as well as in pre-surgical evaluation 6.

Arterial supply
anterior tympanic artery from the maxillary artery
stylomastoid artery from the posterior auricular or occipital arteries
numerous small vessels from the outside carotid artery
Venous drainage
drainage to the pterygoid venous plexus and the superior petrosal sinus
Lymphatic drainage
Lymphatic drainage is to the parotid, retropharyngeal and higher organization of deep cervical nodes.

This is by means of the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacobson nerve), which forms the tympanic plexus via combining with sympathetic fibres from the inner carotid nerve. Branches from the plexus deliver sensory and vasomotor fibres to the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity, in addition to to the tympanic membrane and external auditory meatus.

The center and external ear also are furnished by using branches of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves which ends up in referred pain inside the ear from other areas furnished by those nerves, e.G. The tooth, posterior a part of the tongue, pharynx and larynx.

The tympanic plexus offers off the lesser petrosal nerve, which provides parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland through the otic ganglion.

History and etymology
Tympanum is derived from τύμπανον (tumpanon) the Ancient Greek word for a drum.

Related pathology
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posterior fontanelle
anterolateral (sphenoidal) fontanelle
posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle
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jugular fossa
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petrous ridge
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tympanic component
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posterior ethmoidal foramen
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palatovaginal canal
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cribriform plate
crista galli
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buccinator muscle
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stapedius muscle
tensor tympani muscle
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superior rectus muscle
inferior rectus muscle
lateral rectus muscle
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superior oblique muscle
inferior oblique muscle
levator palpebrae superioris muscle
superior tarsal muscle
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tensor veli palatini muscle
levator veli palatini muscle
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advanced pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Passavant cushion
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Killian dehiscence
stylopharyngeus muscle
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suprahyoid muscle tissues
digastric muscle
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sternothyroid muscle
thyrohyoid muscle
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muscle groups of the neck
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longus colli muscle
longus capitis muscle
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colliscalene triangle
scalenus medius muscle
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deep cervical fascia
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deep areas of the neck
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carotid sheath
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parapharyngeal area
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false vocal cords
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subglottic area
proper vocal cords
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viscera of the neck
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nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsils
thyroid gland
pyramidal lobe of thyroid
ectopic thyroid
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salivary glands and ducts
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minor salivary glands
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lacrimal artery
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supratrochlear artery
dorsal nasal artery
external carotid artery (mnemonic)
superior thyroid artery
superior laryngeal artery
ascending pharyngeal artery
lingual artery
facial artery
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advanced labial artery
angular artery
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posterior auricular artery
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middle meningeal artery
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inferior alveolar artery
mental artery
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anterior ethmoidal artery
posterior ethmoidal artery
infraorbital artery
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inner thoracic artery
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suprascapular artery
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dorsal scapular artery
costocervical trunk
thyroidea ima artery
venous drainage
inner jugular vein (mnemonic)
jugular bulb
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pharyngeal vein
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angular vein
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supratrochlear vein
lingual vein
superior thyroid vein
middle thyroid vein
outside jugular vein (mnemonic)
posterior auricular vein
retromandibular vein
superficial temporal vein
(deep/internal) maxillary vein
pterygoid venous plexus
facial vein
anterior jugular vein
posterior external jugular vein
suprascapular vein
transverse cervical vein
cavernous sinus
facial-cavernous anastomoses
anterior condylar confluence
innervation of the top and neck
cranial nerves
olfactory nerve (CN I)
optic nerve (CN II)
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
trochlear nerve (CN IV)
trigeminal nerve (CN V) (mnemonic)
trigeminal ganglion
ophthalmic department
tentorial nerve
frontal nerve
supra-orbital nerve
supratrochlear nerve
lacrimal nerve
nasociliary nerve
small communicating branch to the ciliary ganglion
short ciliary nerves
lengthy ciliary nerves
infratrochlear nerve
posterior ethmoidal nerve
anterior ethmoidal nerve
maxillary department
center meningeal nerve
zygomatic nerve
zygomaticotemporal nerve
zygomaticofacial nerve
infra-orbital nerve
posterior superior alveolar nerve
center superior alveolar nerve
anterior superior alveolar nerve
nasopalatine nerve
posterior superior nasal nerves
more palatine nerve
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pharyngeal nerve
mandibular division
nervus spinosus
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deep temporal nerves
lateral pterygoid nerves
masseteric nerve
buccal nerve
posterior department
auriculotemporal nerve
lingual nerve
inferior alveolar nerve
nerve to mylohyoid
incisive nerve
mental nerve
abducens nerve (CN VI)
facial nerve (CN VII)
chorda tympani
nerve to stapedius
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
vestibular ganglion (Scarpa’s ganglion)
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Jacobson nerve
vagus nerve (CN X)
superior laryngeal nerve
outside laryngeal nerve
inner laryngeal nerve
recurrent laryngeal nerve (inferior laryngeal nerve)
non-recurrent laryngeal nerve
(spinal) accent nerve (CN XI)
hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
parasympathetic ganglia of the top and neck
ciliary ganglion
pterygopalatine ganglion
otic ganglion​
submandibular ganglion
more occipital nerve
1/3 occipital nerve
cervical plexus
muscular branches
longus capitis
longus colli
scalenus anterior
scalenus medius
scalenus posterior
ansa cervicalis
omohyoid (advanced and inferior bellies one by one)
phrenic nerve
accent phrenic nerve
contribution to the accessory nerve (CN XI)
cutaneous branches
much less occipital nerve
more auricular nerve
transverse cervical nerve
supraclavicular nerve
brachial plexus
pharyngeal plexus
lymphatic drainage of the pinnacle and neck
cervical lymph node corporations
Delphian node
intraparotid lymph nodes
jugular trunk
cervical lymph node stages
supraclavicular lymph nodes
embryological development of the head and neck
branchial equipment
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